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SME Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration (MME) journal: New papers published online

By Chee Theng posted 4 days ago

  

New Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration (MME) journal papers have just been published on Springer's Online First! 

To read and download these papers for free, first log in on the SME website, then return to this message and click on the https://doi link of the paper you wish to read or download. Follow these simple steps: 
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(5) To see the papers below, come back to this message and use the https://doi link of the paper you wish to read or download. This will bring you back to the MME Springer website with the full text of the paper available to you.  

Enhancement of a Process Flowsheet for Recovering and Concentrating Critical Materials from Bituminous Coal Sources
by R. Q. Honaker, W. Zhang, J. Werner, A. Noble, G. H. Luttrell and R. H. Yoon
Cite this article as:
Honaker, R.Q., Zhang, W., Werner, J. et al. Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration (2019)
https://doi.org/10.1007/s42461-019-00148-x

Abstract
Recovery of rare earth elements (REE) from coal-related resources has recently received significant interest due to supply concerns and their key roles in critical industries and defense-related technologies. An integrated flowsheet consisting of sorting, crushing/grinding, physical separation, acid leaching, solvent extraction, and selective precipitation was designed to achieve continuous production of rare earth products from various coal-related resources such as coarse refuse and acid mine drainage. A pilot plant was constructed that enabled continuous testing of the circuitry on a range of different coal-based feedstocks. Despite achieving significant success in producing high-grade rare earth oxide products, low REE recovery values and high operational costs necessitated a re-evaluation of the process flowsheet. This article describes the circuitry improvements that were based on both laboratory and pilot plant test results. Roasting as a pre-leach treatment was found to significantly improve the leaching rate and overall REE recovery values. After roasting West Kentucky No. 13 and Fire Clay coal refuse materials at 600 °C, REE recovery increased by 60 and 40 absolute percentage points, respectively. Rare earth concentration in the pregnant leachate solution (PLS) was increased to around 700 ppm prior to solvent extraction using a staged precipitation method. REEs in the precipitate were re-dissolved, purified, and extracted from the PLS using solvent extraction and selective precipitation to values of around 80%. As a result of the improvements, chemical consumption in the acid leaching and solvent extraction processes was significantly reduced. A techno-economical assessment of the improved flowsheet indicated significant commercialization potential.

HPGR Rolls Surface Wear: In-line Scanning of a Laboratory-Scale HPGR
by Samira Rashidi and Raj K. Rajamani
Cite this article as:
Rashidi, S. & Rajamani, R.K. Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration (2019)
https://doi.org/10.1007/s42461-019-00150-3

Abstract
High pressure grinding rolls have been utilized in various operations during the past four decades, simply due to their inherent mode of breakage that offers metallurgical benefits with pronounced energy reduction. For every new application, wear and in particular roll surface wear protection has always been the focal point of HPGR trade-off studies. Wear remains an important issue throughout a mine’s life given inevitable variations in the ore deposits properties. Hence, the capability of continuous scanning of rolls provides ample information about any deviations in the design values as well as their effect on the wear pattern. In part I of this manuscript, we present the feasibility of in-line scanning of roll surface in a 200 × 100 mm lab-scale HPGR. First, the in-line scanning was developed in a mock-up roll and then the scanner was moved to the laboratory-scale HPGR. We present the choice of scanners and the methods adopted to achieve high-level accuracy of determining wear. Even though we planned for micron-level precision of scanning, the inherent variability in shaft rotation was higher than the variability in the roll diameter due to wear. The hundred-kilogram mass processed in the HPGR was not sufficient to create enough wear that is discernible to the in-line scanner. Yet, the method tested is a promising avenue for in-line scanning of HPGR rolls.

An Overview of Beneficiation and Hydrometallurgical Techniques on Eudialyte Group Minerals
by Victoria Vaccarezza and Corby Anderson
Cite this article as:
Vaccarezza, V. & Anderson, C. Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration (2019)
https://doi.org/10.1007/s42461-019-00132-5

Abstract:
The demand for rare earth elements for everyday technology and applications has initiated much research into the extraction and recovery of these rare earth elements. An otherwise unknown group of minerals, eudialyte is a zircon silicate consisting of rare earth oxides (REO), contained in a unique mineral structure and represented by a complex chemical formula. Research into extraction and recovery of rare earth elements involves various beneficiation and hydrometallurgical techniques. The goal of beneficiation being to efficiently liberate and upgrade the REO content, followed by hydrometallurgy to extract the desired elements. This overview will discuss previous research on treating eudialyte group minerals via different mineral processing and extraction techniques.

Rhenium in Molybdenite: a Database Approach to Identifying Geochemical Controls on the Distribution of a Critical Element
by Isabel F. Barton, Christian A. Rathkopf and Mark D. Barton
Cite this article as:
Barton, I.F., Rathkopf, C.A. & Barton, M.D. Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration (2019)
https://doi.org/10.1007/s42461-019-00145-0

Abstract
Molybdenite is the world’s principal source of rhenium (Re), a critical element in multiple high-tech applications. However, the Re contents in molybdenite vary by orders of magnitude on scales ranging from single grains to whole deposits. In order to better understand the systematics of this variation and what geochemical factors control molybdenite Re concentration, and hence overall Re resources, we examine global patterns in molybdenite Re contents through a compilation of > 3000 measurements of Re in molybdenite from > 700 mainly ore-bearing moderate- to high-temperature hydrothermal systems of different types. Our results are similar to but expand on those of earlier studies. Rhenium concentration in molybdenite has a lognormal distribution and varies systematically with type of geologic system, intrusive lithology, and Mo grade. The lowest-Re molybdenite occurs in greisens (geometric mean 1 ppm ± a multiplicative standard deviation of 9), quartz vein-hosted W-Sn deposits (2 ± 5 ppm), unmineralized granites and granodiorites (12 ± 8 ppm), intrusion-related deposits (24 ± 8 ppm), and porphyry W-Sn deposits (16 ± 11 ppm). Rhenium is most enriched in molybdenites from volcanic sublimates (23,800 ± 5 ppm), with skarn Fe and Au (560 ± 5 ppm and 540 ± 3 ppm respectively) and porphyry Cu and Cu-Au deposits next (470 ± 4 and 430 ± 7 ppm respectively). Among porphyries, skarns, and quartz vein-hosted deposits, Re is most highly concentrated in molybdenites from Cu and Au systems and its concentration decreases systematically through Cu-Mo, Mo, Sn, and W deposits. In nearly all cases, molybdenites from systems associated with intermediate igneous rocks contain more Re than molybdenites from systems of the same type with more felsic rock associations. The disparity between Re contents of molybdenite in felsic and intermediate systems is largest for porphyries, quartz vein-hosted, and skarn deposits and is near zero for subeconomic or barren granite and granodiorite Mo systems; felsic intrusion-related deposits have slightly higher molybdenite Re than their equivalents associated with intermediate intrusions. In most systems, molybdenite Re content does not correlate with metal grade, but may have an inverse correlation with Au grade in intrusion-related deposits (based on a small number of data points) and does exhibit a strong inverse correlation with deposit Mo grade. Dilution of Re through larger amounts (higher deposit grades) of molybdenite explains about 40% of this correlation, but the relative enrichment of Re in molybdenite from low-Mo deposits must also reflect some selective enrichment of Re/Mo in porphyry Cu systems compared to porphyry Mo systems. We found no evidence for secular increase or other systematic temporal variation in molybdenite Re content. The data regarding the use of molybdenite Re content as a proxy for mantle influence are ambiguous. Nearly all observed empirical correlations can be traced back to differences in redox state and sulfide concentration, the two geochemical factors identified here and by previous experimental work as the controlling influences on Re mobility under hydrothermal conditions. Hydrothermal systems with reducing conditions (W- and Sn-rich) tend to have low molybdenite Re even though compiled whole-rock data indicate that their source rocks have as much or more Re as those of more oxidized systems (e.g., Cu-rich). Vapor-phase exsolution, crustal assimilation, and mixing with external fluids may all enrich molybdenite Re concentrations in individual deposits and deposit types, but their extent and importance in overall hydrothermal concentration of Re is uncertain. Thus, it appears that the available molybdenite Re resource in an ore deposit largely depends on how the deposit’s redox and sulfidation conditions have varied over time and space during the timespan of hydrothermal activity. Oxidized, high-sulfide conditions tend to concentrate Re in molybdenite, whereas reducing conditions tend to leave Re dispersed at low concentrations in the bulk rock.

Sustainable Change of Coal-Mining Regions
by Jürgen Kretschmann
Cite this article as:
Kretschmann, J. Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration (2019)
https://doi.org/10.1007/s42461-019-00151-2

Abstract:
According to the model of product life cycles, the global coal mining industry is in the stagnation phase. The coal demand of the main consumer, China, has peaked in 2013 and is slowly declining. The Norwegian sovereign wealth fund, the world’s largest, has excluded coal-related companies for ethical reasons. Important players like the UN or the EU have already begun to describe pathways towards decarbonization. Increasing competition between coal mining companies and the mining regions can be expected worldwide if companies want to keep their positions on the global and national coal markets. Companies will focus on the best deposits. European countries like France, Spain, or Germany are only forerunners of this development—their centuries of coal production have been finished. The concept of sustainable development (SD) is fundamentally based on a model of progress where ecological, economic, and social dimensions should be developed equally and positively. But without the idea of competition, the concept of SD is incomplete. Questions arise, such as how can SD be realized on stagnating or declining markets without guarantees for companies “to live forever”? How can SD be a corporate goal in a phase of decline? How can declining mining regions sustainably progress into a better future? The German hard coal mining industry’s lifecycle has ended in 2018 after 60 years of stagnation and decline. As of 2019, all hard coal consumed in Germany will be imported, especially from Colombia, Russia, and South Africa. What has been done in Germany to handle the coal decline in a sustainable way and the lessons learned from this process is described in this paper. It may be useful for mining regions who will face a similar future sooner or later.

Ground-Penetrating Radar for Karst Detection in Underground Stone Mines
by Jonathan Baggett, Amin Abbasi, Juan Monsalve, Richard Bishop, Nino Ripepi and John Hole
Cite this article as:
Baggett, J., Abbasi, A., Monsalve, J. et al. Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration (2019)
https://doi.org/10.1007/s42461-019-00144-1

Abstract:
This work focuses on the operational and safety issues associated with karst voids in large opening underground mines. Issues include water inrush, structural instability, and engineering uncertainty in these environments. Coupled with the fracturing prevalent in folded sedimentary rocks, karst voids are complex and challenging ground-control risks. Traditional methods of predicting karst void locations, such as probe drilling, are impeded by the inconsistent spatial distribution and variable sizes of the features as reported by Li et al. (J Rock Mechan Geotech Eng:232–242, 2010) and Hassan et al. (Procedia Chem 19:737–742, 2016). Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a geophysical technique that transmits radio waves into a medium and subsequently detects reflected waves via a receiver. The travel time and energy of received signals are then processed and interpreted. The difference in conductivity and dielectric permittivity between limestone and open karst cavities causes strong reflections. GPR is frequently used as a geophysical surveying technique in several industries; however, there is a lack of published research on underground mining GPR applications as reported by Zhao et al. (2015a; Geophys J Int:62–71, 2015b) and Eskelinen and Pellinen (Constr Build Mater:888–898, 2018). The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the use of GPR in an underground stone mine and to discuss the importance of karst void detection ahead of mining.

Numerical Investigation of the Effect of a Novel Wet Scrubber on Dust Reduction in an Underground Coal Mine
by Sampurna Arya and Thomas Novak
Cite this article as:
Arya, S. & Novak, T. Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration (2019)
https://doi.org/10.1007/s42461-019-00135-2

Abstract
Controlling dust generation and keeping it below permissible limits to meet federal dust standards at the working face of a room-and-pillar coal mine is a challenge for a mine operator. With the recent changes in federal dust regulations requiring lower worker exposure, maintaining compliance has become increasingly difficult. The current most effective practice of dust control at a continuous miner face in an underground mine is the use of a flooded-bed scrubber. A study carried out by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) indicated that a flooded-bed scrubber could achieve cleaning efficiencies between 58 and 90%. But, the operation of such a system is maintenance intensive. The flooded-bed scrubber screen becomes clogged with dust particles and requires frequent cleaning to maintain performance. However, the dust control issue is not solely a mining industry problem. Other industries face similar issues. The University of Kentucky collaborated with Toyota Motor Manufacturing on the development of a novel wet scrubber, called the vortecone scrubber, for capturing oversprayed paint particles in automotive paint booths. The vortecone scrubber achieved a cleaning efficiency of 99% and required minimal maintenance. This study aims to assess the ability of this vortecone scrubber to capture respirable dust in an underground coal mine. The paper presents the results of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of this vortecone scrubber. It discusses the effects of air quantity and dust particle size on the performance of the scrubber.

Application of Thermal Fragmentation in Australian Hard Rock Underground Narrow-Vein Mining
by Bradley Drake, Larissa Koroznikova, Michael Tuck and Steve Durkin
Cite this article as:
Drake, B., Koroznikova, L., Tuck, M. et al. Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration (2019)
https://doi.org/10.1007/s42461-019-00154-z

Abstract
This paper presents the results from the investigation of the application of thermal fragmentation in Australian hard rock underground narrow-vein mining. Two geologically similar samples from an underground narrow-vein hard rock gold mine were collected to obtain a measure of the technology’s ability to recover ore by the creation of large thermal openings to assess the applicability of the thermal method. Particle size distribution showed a higher generation of fine product, − 2 mm, by thermal fragmentation compared with selective blasting by 31%. The Bond work index for thermal ore (12.62 kWh/t) is half to that of the blasted ore value (25.32 kWh/t). The average grindability obtained for the thermal ore sample was greater than the blasted sample by a factor of 2.44, a higher value indicating a decrease in the energy required to grind. The thermal fragmentation method generates product with higher dissolution of gold in cyanide, by 14% for the − 9.5 + 2 mm size fraction samples. Additionally, the thermal fragmentation results in higher production of − 9.5 + 2 mm material by 15 % compared with selective blasting.

A New Methodology Based on Hill of Value for Ore Reserve Selection in Long-Term Planning for Block Caving
by Marco Vera, Alfonso Ovalle and Raúl Castro
Cite this article as:
Vera, M., Ovalle, A. & Castro, R. Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration (2019)
https://doi.org/10.1007/s42461-019-00152-1

Abstract
 The underground mining evolution for block cave mines in Chile and worldwide has made important strides in the last decades. Nonetheless, reserves determination in the initial stages of these types of projects—mainly for long-term planning—is not studied in as much detail as it should be, especially regarding the impact on the final value of the enterprise. Today, the first estimation of the size of a block cave mine, typically expressed in tons, tends to determine very large footprints and ore bodies. The resulting large-scale mine is obtained by applying the marginal cut-off grade (COG) to determine reserves. Yet, in many cases, it is possible to obtain an equal or higher benefit, extracting fewer reserves in less time, with a smaller active area, which significantly reduces the project’s uncertainty. To explore scenarios obtained by applying a higher marginal COG in the initial phases of the project, the Hill of Value methodology is used to estimate the net present value (NPV) in relation to the production rate and the COG. However, the application of this methodology considers certain simplifications that generate results which are not completely satisfactory in specific cases. This paper suggests an improvement of this method to obtain more reliable results regarding determination of a COG profile that will optimize the NPV of a block-cave project. The methodology was developed and applied in a massive polymetallic deposit with zinc, lead, and silver mineralization, corresponding to a real block caving project. The methodology provides NPV results that differ by approximately 15% in comparison to the real mine plan, while also being considerably simpler and faster to calculate. In summary, the proposed methodology provides a reasonable and fast procedure to estimate higher than marginal COG that increases the NPV of block cave mine projects.

Numerical Simulation Studies on Effects of Explosion Impact Load on Underground Mine Seal
by Xixi Zhang, Jianwei Cheng, Congling Shi, Xuan Xu, Marek Borowski and Yue Wang
Cite this article as:
Zhang, X., Cheng, J., Shi, C. et al. Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration (2019)
https://doi.org/10.1007/s42461-019-00143-2

Abstract
As the first barrier to prevent accidents caused by explosions in underground coal mines, the integrity and stability of mine seals have great effects on mine workers’ lives and underground production safety. In this paper, the mechanical responding performance of typical mine seals under the impact load are studied by using numerical simulation method. By such simulation studies, the safety of different seals subjected to the explosion load is evaluated. Seals’ stability are also investigated under effects caused by various influence factors including thickness of mine seal, cutting depth into surrounding rocks, rock type, and the roof-to-floor convergence under given the explosion load. The research results can provide theoretical basis and reasonable improvements for mine seal’s construction practices for improving its anti-explosion performance.

Underground Mine Air and Strata Temperature Change Due to the Use of Refuge Alternatives
by L. Yan, D. S. Yantek and M. A. Reyes
Cite this article as:
Yan, L., Yantek, D.S. & Reyes, M.A. Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration (2019)
https://doi.org/10.1007/s42461-019-00153-0

Abstract
Heat and humidity buildup withn refuge alternatives (RAs) may expose occupants to physiological hazards such as heat stress. The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) regulations require RAs in underground coal mines to provide a life-sustaining environment for miners trapped underground when escape is impossible. RAs are required to sustain life for 96 h while maintaining an apparent temperature (AT) below 95 °F (35 °C). The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) tested a 10-person tent-type RA, a 23-person tent-type RA, and a 6-person metal-type RA in its underground coal mine facilities to investigate the thermal environment over a 96-h period. The test results showed that mine air and mine strata temperatures surrounding an RA occupied by simulated miners (SMs) increased over the 96-h test period. The test results suggest that RA manufacturers should consider this increase in temperatures when calculating and evaluating RA components during surface and laboratory tests. The findings can equip stakeholders with additional considerations for calculating the interior heat and humidity temperature profiles for occupied RAs not tested in situ.


Thermal Exposure Limit in a Simulated Refuge Alternative
by C. D. Ashley, R. M. Lopez, X. P. Garzon-Villalba and T. E. Bernard
Cite this article as:
Ashley, C.D., Lopez, R.M., Garzon-Villalba, X.P. et al. Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration (2019)
https://doi.org/10.1007/s42461-019-00134-3

Abstract
Federal standards for refuge alternatives (RAs) mandate that they not exceed a Steadman apparent temperature (AT) of 95 °F (35 °C) at an assumed metabolic rate of 325 W, a limit that appears to be arbitrary. Occupants in an RA spend most of their time at rest (a metabolic rate less than 325 W), and thermal equilibrium can likely be maintained at an AT > 35 °C. The purpose of this study was to examine the upper limit of sustainable heat stress during 4- and 8-h exposures at rest. Five men underwent five 4-h trials (phase 1: AT range 39 to 49 °C, 90% rh) and five 8-h trials (phase 2: AT range 46 to 56 °C, 90% rh) in a semi-recumbent position. Descriptive statistics for gastrointestinal temperature (Tgi), heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), sweat rate, fluid intake, urine color, urine specific gravity (USG), and changes in body mass are reported. Mean Tgi for all trials ranged from 36.9 to 37.3 °C, and mean HR for all trials ranged from 61 to 75 bpm. To determine the effects of increased heat exposure, differences in heat strain between 4- and 8-h trials were examined via repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). As AT increased, there were no significant changes in ΔTgi and ΔHR from 1 to 4 h in the 4-h and 8-h trials. During the 8-h trials, as AT increased, there was a difference in ΔTgi between 4 and 8 h. In conclusion, there was support for sustainable exposures resulting in no significant increase in physiological strain at an AT greater than 35 °C AT, with a sustainable limit (no increases in Tgi due to increases in AT) below 46 °C AT. Although the participants were not representative of coal miners, the results provide support for sustainable exposures greater than 35 °C AT at an average metabolic rate of 155 W.

Mineralogical Characteristics of the Nickel Laterite, Southeast Ophiolite Belt, Sulawesi Island, Indonesia
by Yingyi Zhang, Junmao Qie, Xun Fu Wang, Kunkun Cui, Tao Fu, Jie Wang and Yuanhong Qi
Cite this article as:
Zhang, Y., Qie, J., Wang, X.F. et al. Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration (2019)
https://doi.org/10.1007/s42461-019-00147-y

Abstract
With the sharp decrease of sulfide nickel resources, the nickel laterite is becoming more attractive as nickel oxide, nickel matte, and nickel-iron. This study investigated the mineral phase structure, chemical analysis, thermal properties, and element distribution characteristics of the rotten rock layer deposited in the Southeast Sulawesi Ophiolite Belt. The results show that the nickel laterite deposited in Southeast Sulawesi Island, Indonesia, belongs to the typical high-nickel and low-iron garnierite-type laterite. The concentrations of nickel and iron of the nickel laterite are 1.99 wt% and 17.55 wt%, respectively. The serpentine, olivine, clay, chlorite, hematite, and magnetite are the major minerals, and the pyroxene, actinolite, limonite, and chromite are the minor minerals in the nickel laterite in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Serpentine and olivine are the main nickel minerals with an average nickel concentration of 3.65 wt% and 1.73 wt%, respectively. The Fe and Ni have homogeneity and symbiosis in the serpentine and olivine, and their concentrations are often positively correlated.

Investigation of Climatic Conditions in Underground Coal Mining
by İbrahim Çınar and Hakan Özşen
Cite this article as:
Çınar, İ. & Özşen, H. Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42461-019-00141-4

Abstract
Mine workers in heavy and dangerous work are under several physical risk factors, for example temperature, humidity, noise, vibration, lighting and air velocity. Thermal comfort includes parameters such as air temperature, air humidity, air flow rate, radiant heat, metabolic rate and garment insulation. In this study, thermal comfort conditions were evaluated using thermal comfort indices defined as predicted mean vote (PMV) and predicted percentage dissatisfied (PPD) which were determined by measurements taken from an underground coal mine for approximately 100 days. Although the metabolic rate (light work) was kept at 2 met, it was found that predicted mean vote ranged between − 2.58 and 1.68. The predicted percentage dissatisfied index was found to reach 95%. According to the results, it can be seen that thermal comfort may have negative effects on occupational health and safety. The change in thermal comfort index values in the Soma Underground Coal Mine was investigated in detail and the reasons for the changes were determined. Furthermore, determining the optimal working environment for the mine workers was also an aim of this study.

Evaluation of Different Neutralization Reagents in the Selective Removal of Impurities in Rare Earth Sulfuric Liquor
by Ruberlan Gomes Silva, Carlos Antonio Morais and Éder Domingos Oliveira
Cite this article as:
Silva, R.G., Morais, C.A. & Oliveira, É.D. Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration (2019)
https://doi.org/10.1007/s42461-019-00139-y

Abstract
The objective of this study is to assess the impact of different reagents, such as limestone, lime, magnesium oxide, and sodium hydroxide, in experiments carried out in the single purification step and in two consecutive purification steps by raising the pH of a rare earth sulfuric liquor with the aim to remove or reduce the impurity concentrations in the rare earth sulfuric liquor. The choice for the best purification condition was made based on the minimum loss of rare earth elements (REEs), reagent consumption, and residue generation. The exploratory experiments show that it takes place in the two consecutive purification steps, the first one consists in dosing the limestone pulp until it reaches a pH of 3.5 followed by an addition of a lime pulp reaching a pH of 5.0. Under this condition, the results were a total removal of Fe3+, PO43−, and Th4+ ions and a reduction of 99%, 87%, and 37% w/w in the Al3+, UO22+, and SO42− concentrations, respectively, in the purified rare earth liquor. Furthermore, the lowest REE losses (8.3% w/w) and reagent consumption (4.3 kg/m3) and also a low residue generation (7.5 kg/m3) were observed in this condition. Despite reaching similar results regarding impurity removal, the experiments done with the addition of limestone, lime, magnesium oxide pulps, and sodium hydroxide solution in the single purification step, where the pH was raised to 5.0, presented higher REE losses (64.9%, 42.5%, 44.8%, and 60.9% w/w, respectively) and a higher residue generation (43.2, 25.1, 11.1, and 13.6 kg/m3, respectively). This occurred due to the co-precipitation of salts containing rare earth elements in their composition. The experiments conducted with limestone, lime, and MgO resulted in a higher consumption of reagents, while the same result was observed when NaOH was used (4.3 kg/m3). In the experiments carried out with the addition of magnesium oxide and sodium hydroxide, the respective purified rare earth liquors presented a high concentration of magnesium, sulfate, or sodium, which could impact the quality of the marketable rare earth salts, whereas the salts obtained under the best condition observed in this study seem to be amenable for use as raw material in an attempt to obtain rare earth products with an acceptable chemical quality.

Retrofitting and re-powering as a control strategies for curtailment of exposure of underground miners to diesel aerosols
by Aleksandar D. Bugarski, Jon A. Hummer, Shawn Vanderslice and Teresa Barone
Cite this article as:
Bugarski, A.D., Hummer, J.A., Vanderslice, S. et al. Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration (2019)
https://doi.org/10.1007/s42461-019-00146-z

Abstract
A study was conducted to examine the potential of diesel emissions control strategies based on retrofitting existing power packages with exhaust aftertreatment devices and repowering with advanced power packages. The retrofit systems, a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF), were evaluated individually using a US EPA tier 2 (ter 2) engine operated under four steady-state conditions and one transient cycle. The DOC effectively curtailed emissions of CO, and to some extent organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and aerosol number concentration. The DPF system offered substantially higher reductions in OC and EC mass and aerosol number concentrations. Both, the DOC and DPF achieved reductions in the aforementioned emissions without adversely affecting emissions of NO2 and nano-sized aerosols. The strategy of repowering with an advanced system was examined using a US EPA tier 4 final (tier 4f) engine equipped with a cooled exhaust gas recirculation system and diesel exhaust fluid-based selective catalytic reduction system, but not with a DPF system. The tier 4f engine contributed substantially less than the tier 2 engine to the EC and OC mass, aerosol number, and CO, NO, and NO2 concentrations. The tier 4f engine was very effective in reducing aerosol mass, NO, and NO2 concentrations, but it was not equally effective in reducing aerosol number concentrations. The implementation of viable exhaust after treatment systems and advanced diesel power packages could be instrumental to the underground mining industry to secure a clean, economical, and dependable source of power for mobile equipment.

Evaluation of Whole Body Vibration (WBV) of Dumper Operators Based on Job Cycle
by Sandeep Kumar Jeripotula, Aruna Manglapady and Govinda Raj Mandela
Cite this article as:
Jeripotula, S.K., Manglapady, A. & Mandela, G.R. Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration (2019)
https://doi.org/10.1007/s42461-019-00140-5

Abstract
Dumper operators are frequently exposed to whole body vibration (WBV) in surface mines. Surface mining activities involve the amalgamation of comparatively high intensity of vibration and extended exposure durations. Efficient risk reduction mandates knowing of important phases of a task that poses a threat to health of dumper operators. So far in India very limited studies have been reported on WBV exposure with regard to surface mines. This paper evaluates WBV of dumper operators based on ISO 2631-1:1997 Standards and European Union (EU) Directive 2002 for different phases of job cycle. Six dumpers were considered for this study and the vibration measurements were made for all the four phases of the job cycle by placing the triaxial accelerometer on the operator’s seat-surface and at the seat-back, independently. The findings of the study revealed that the haulage task (loaded travel and empty travel) remains the chief contributor to vibration exposure according to seat-surface and seat-back measurements. Maximum frequency weighted root mean square (RMS) of 1.12 m/s2 and 1.09 m/s2 were reported for empty travel task for seat-surface and seat-back measurements, respectively. For seat-surface measurements based on RMS, Z axis remains as the dominant axis of vibration for all the dumpers during haulage task, whereas for seat-back measurements, the dominant axis varies between X and Y. Exposure action value (EAV) based on RMS has exceeded the threshold value of 0.5 m/s2 for all the dumpers during loaded travel and empty travel for seat-surface as well as for seat-back measurements.

Estimation of the Fluid Velocity Profile in the Stratification Zone of a Falcon Concentrator

by Ranjeet Kumar Singh, Raj Kishore, Kisor Kumar Sahu, Ganesh Chalavadi and Ratnakar Singh
Cite this article as:
Singh, R.K., Kishore, R., Sahu, K.K. et al. Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration (2019)
https://doi.org/10.1007/s42461-019-00133-4

Abstract
The Falcon concentrator is capable of separating minerals in fine size classes based on their differential density. Separation of mineral particles depends upon the fluid flow characteristics and relative movement of particles in a fluid. In the present study, a fluid flow characteristic inside the Falcon concentrator was established through experimentation and modeling. The Falcon concentrator has two fluid entry points: (a) Fluid entering through gravity assisted feeding system and (b) Fluid entering through the fluidized hole on the concentrator wall. In order to identify the role of fluid entering the concentrator, a tracer was injected into the system. As per the tracer based experimentation, it was established that fluid entering through the gravity based feeding system is responsible for thin flowing film formation in the stratification zone where particles are stratified based on their relative density. The momentum balance and continuity equations were simplified for a high centrifugal force field, and the fluid velocity profile was estimated inside the thin flowing film. Estimated fluid flow profiles will help to simulate the particle trajectories inside the Falcon concentrator. The influence of rotational speed, fluid flow rate, and cone angle on the fluid velocity profile were investigated. Fluid thickness over the concentrator wall is also estimated, and it is typically of the order of ~150–200 μm.


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